The Department of Physics was established alongside six (6) pioneer Departments in the Faculty of Science, Federal University, Lokoja, before the commencement of the 2012/2013 Academic session. A total number of thirty one (31) pioneer students were admitted into the Department for the 2012/2013 academic session. The current Head of Department is Dr. Tajudeen Oladele AHMED. From the modest beginning, the staff strength in the Department was Twenty three (23) comprising of Ten (10) academic staff, Nine (9) Technical Staff and Five (5) Administrative Staff. The Department awards a Bachelor’s Degree Programme in Physics.
Breakdown of Students in the Department
100 Level 
200 Level 
300 Level 
400 Level 

Male 
18 
Male 
19 
Male 
17 
Male 

Female 
5 
Female 
3 
Female 
5 
Female 

Total 
23 
Total 
22 
Total 
22 
Total 
Mission Statement
The mission of the Department of Physics at the Federal University Lokoja, Nigeria is to provide high quality physics education and produce well trained graduates that are confident in their abilities and understanding of physics. The Department of Physics also promotes Physics Research, creative activities and engages with global community in providing greater understanding of the nature of Physical Science, an appreciation of Physics in everyday life, and technical expertise.
Vision
To establish a Physics Department that will serve as Center of Excellence in terms of quality of teaching, research and training.
Phylosophy
The philosophy of the Department is to safeguard excellence in Research and Physics education and to provide students with a broad and balanced foundation in Physics. The Department also aims at creating knowledge through human development concepts by employing innovative teaching and learning methods that will assist our Physics graduates to be very relevant in all areas of Physics and other related fields.
Admission Requirements
Five Ordinary level credits in Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, English Language and any one of the following subjects: Biology, Geography and Agricultural Science. The acceptable examination bodies include WAEC, NECO and equivalents. In addition, candidate must have acceptable score in Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME). The subject combinations are: Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry.
Breakdown of Direct Entry Requirements
O’ Level
Five SSCE passes at credit level in not more than two sittings in English Language, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and any one of the following subjects: Biology, Geography, Further Mathematics and Agricultural Science.
IJMB/GCE A’ Level
Two A’ Level passes to include Physics and any one of Mathematics or Chemistry
ND/HND/NCE
 ND (Upper credit) passes or its equivalent in Science Laboratory Technology, Electronics and Electrical Engineering
 NCE: Credit pass in Physics and Mathematics or any other relevant subject combination
Course Structure
COURSE OUTLINE/DESCRIPTION FOR DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
100 Level Courses
FIRST SEMESTER
Course Code 
Course Title 
Credit Unit(s) 
Status 
Prerequisite 

PHY 111 
General Mechanics 
2 
Core 
O’ Level 

PHY 131 
Heat & Properties of Matter 
2 
Core 
O’ Level 

PHY 161 
General Physics Practical I 
1 
Core 
O’ Level 

MTH 111 
Elementary Mathematics I 
3 
Core 
O’ Level 

MTH 113 
Elementary Mathematics III 
3 
Core 
O’ Level 

CSC 101 
Introduction to Computer Science 
2 
Core 
O’ Level 

GST 101 
Communication in English I 
2 
Core 
O’ Level 

GST 103 
Nigerian People & Culture 
2 
Core 
O’ Level 

GST 105 
Logic, Philosophy & Human Existence 
2 
Core 
O’ Level 

CHM 111 
Introductory Physical Chemistry 
3 
Core 
O’ Level 

CHM 101 
Experimental Chemistry 
1 
Core 
O’ Level 


SUBTOTAL 
23 


GEY 101 
Introduction to Geology I 
2 
Elective 
O’ Level 

SECOND SEMESTER
Course Code 
Course Title 
Credit Unit(s) 
Status 
Prerequisite 
PHY 122 
Electricity, Magnetism & Modern Physics 
2 
Core 
O’ Level 
PHY 124 
Geometric Wave Optics 
1 
Core 
O’ Level 
PHY 162 
General Physics Practical II 
1 
Core 
O’ Level 
MTH 112 
Elementary Mathematics II 
3 
Core 
O’ Level 
MTH 114 
Elementary Mathematics IV 
3 
Core 
O’ Level 
STA 112 
Probability theory 
3 
Core 
O’ Level 
GST 102 
Communication in English II 
2 
Core 
O’ Level 
GST 104 
Communication in French & Arabic 
1 
Core 
O’ Level 
GST 106 
History & Philosophy of Science 
2 
Core 
O’ Level 
GST 108 
Environmental Health 
2 
Core 
O’ Level 

SUBTOTAL 
20 


CHM 122 
Introductory Inorganic Chemistry 
3 
Elective 
O’ Level 
CHM 102 
Experimental Chemistry II 
1 
Elective 
O’ Level 
CHM 132 
Introductory Organic Chemistry 
3 
Elective 
O’ Level 
GEY 102 
Introduction to Geology II 
2 
Elective 
O’ Level 
A minimum of two (2) credit units elective course is (are) required. 
GRAND TOTAL = 23 + 20 = 43
200 level Courses
FIRST SEMESTER
Course Code 
Course Title 
Credit Unit(s) 
Status 
Prerequisite 
PHY 211 
Mechanics 
3 
Core 
PHY 111 
PHY 231 
Properties of Matter 
2 
Core 
PHY 131 
PHY 261 
Physics Laboratory I 
2 
Core 
PHY 161/162 
MTH 221 
Mathematical Methods I 
3 
Core 
MTH 112 
MTH 225 
Linear Algebra I 
2 
Core 
MTH 111 
MTH 227 
Real analysis I 
3 
Core 
MTH 112 
GST 201 
Peace Studies &Conflict Resolution 
2 
Core 

GST 203 
Nationalism 
2 
Core 


SUBTOTAL 
19 


PHY 281 
Introduction to Geophysics 
2 
Elective 

MTH 223 
Sets, Logic & Algebra 
3 
Elective 
MTH 111 
STA 211 
Probability Distribution I 
3 
Elective 
STA 112 
CHM 221 
Basic Inorganic Chemistry 
3 
Elective 
CHM 122 
CHM 211 
Basic Physical Chemistry 
3 
Elective 
CHM 111 
CHM 201 
Experimental Physical/Inorganic Chemistry 
1 
Elective 
CHM 101 
A minimum of TWO (2) credit units elective course is (are) required. 

SECOND SEMESTER
Course Code 
Course Title 
Credit Unit(s) 
Status 
Prerequisite 
PHY 202 
Mathematical & Computational Physics 
3 
Core 
MTH 112 
PHY 212 
Vectors & Tensors 
2 
Core 
PHY 111 
PHY 222 
Electromagnetism 
3 
Core 
PHY 122 
PHY 252 
Modern Physics 
2 
Core 
PHY 122 
PHY 262 
Physics Laboratory II 
2 
Core 
PHY 161/162 
MTH 224 
Linear Algebra II 
2 
Core 
MTH 111 
CSC202 
Object Oriented FORTRAN Programming 
3 
Core 
CSC 101 
GST 204 
Introduction to Entrepreneurial Skills 
2 
Core 


SUBTOTAL 
19 


MTH 222 
Elementary Differential Equations I 
3 
Elective 
MTH 112 
STA 212 
Probability Distribution II 
3 
Elective 
STA 112 
CHM 222 
Structure & Bonding 
2 
Elective 
CHM 122 
CHM 232 
Basic Organic Chemistry 
3 
Elective 
CHM 132 
CHM 202 
Experimental Organic Chemistry 
1 
Elective 
CHM102 
A minimum of two (2) credit units elective courses is (are) required 
GRAND TOTAL = 19 + 19 = 38
300 Level Courses
FIRST SEMESTER
Course Code 
Course Title 
Credit Unit(s) 
Status 
Prerequisite 
PHY 311 
Quantum Physics 
2 
Core 
PHY 252 
PHY 321 
Vibrations & Waves 
2 
Core 
PHY 211 
PHY 323 
Electronics 
2 
Core 
PHY 222 
PHY 331 
Thermodynamics 
2 
Core 
PHY 231 
PHY 343 
Introductory Solid State Physics 
2 
Core 
PHY 231 
PHY 361 
Advanced Physics Laboratory 
2 
Core 
PHY 261/262 
PHY 309 
Energy & Environment 
1 
Core 
 
MTH 341 
Mathematical Methods II 
3 
Core 
MTH 221 
MTH 339 
Real Analysis II 
3 
Core 
MTH 227 

SUBTOTAL 
19 


PHY 333 
Heat & Momentum Transfer 
2 
Elective 
PHY 211 
MTH 337 
Complex Analysis I 
3 
Elective 
MTH 223 
MTH 331 
Abstract Algebra I 
3 
Elective 
MTH 111/223 
CHM 315 
Chemical Kinetics 
3 
Elective 
CHM 221 
CHM 321 
Main Group Inorganic Chemistry 
3 
Elective 
CHM 221 
CHM 341 
Instrumental Methods of Analysis 
3 
Elective 
CHM 241 
A minimum of two (2) credit units elective courses is (are) required 

300 LEVEL SECOND SEMESTER
Course Code 
Course Title 
Credit Unit(s) 
Status 
Prerequisite 
PHY 300 
Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) 
6 
Core 
Minimum of 60 Total Credit Units Earned 

SUBTOTAL 
6 

GRAND TOTAL = 19 + 6 = 25
400 Level Courses
FIRST SEMESTER
Course Code 
Course Title 
Credit Unit(s) 
Status 
Prerequisite 
PHY 401 
Students Seminar & Library Search 
1 
Core 

PHY 411 
Quantum Mechanics 
3 
Core 
PHY 311 
PHY 421 
Electromagnetic theory 
3 
Core 
PHY 222 
PHY 425 
Modern Optics 
2 
Core 
PHY 124 
PHY 451 
Introductory Nuclear Physics 
2 
Core 
PHY 252 
PHY 461 
Technical Drawing & Workshop Practice 
2 
Core 
PHY 361 

SUBTOTAL 
19 


PHY 413 
Introductory Astrophysics 
2 
Elective 
PHY 252 
PHY 423 
Acoustics 
2 
Elective 
PHY 321 
PHY 453 
Plasma Physics 
2 
Elective 
PHY 222 
PHY 455 
Atomic & Molecular Spectroscopy 
2 
Elective 
PHY 252 
PHY 457 
Radiation Biophysics 
2 
Elective 
PHY 252 
PHY 459 
Nuclear Instrumentation 
2 
Elective 
PHY 252 
PHY 481 
Exploration Geophysical Methods 
2 
Elective 
PHY 281 
PHY 483 
Potential Theory 
2 
Elective 
PHY 222 
PHY 485 
Meteorology 
2 
Elective 
PHY 331 
MTH 441 
Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations 
3 
Elective 
 
MTH 445 
General Topology 
3 
Elective 
 
A minimum of four (4) credit units elective courses is (are) required 
400 LEVEL SECOND SEMESTER
Course Code 
Course Title 
Credit Unit(s) 
Status 
Prerequisite 
PHY 400 
Research Project 
6 
Core 
Min. of 81 TCUE 
PHY 414 
Analytical Mechanics 
3 
Core 
PHY 211 
PHY 422 
Advanced Electronics 
2 
Core 
PHY 323 
PHY 432 
Statistical Mechanics 
2 
Core 
PHY 331 
PHY 442 
Solid State Physics 
3 
Core 
PHY 343 
PHY 452 
Nuclear Physics 
2 
Core 
PHY 252 

SUBTOTAL 
18 


PHY 412 
Hamiltonian Mechanics 
2 
Elective 
PHY 211 
PHY 418 
Electromagnetic Fields & waves 
2 
Elective 
PHY 222 
PHY 424 
Microwave & Radiation 
2 
Elective 
PHY 222 
PHY 428 
Semiconductor Physics I 
2 
Elective 
PHY 323 
PHY 446 
Materials Science 
2 
Elective 
PHY 343/331 
PHY 458 
Reactor Physics 
2 
Elective 
PHY 252 
PHY 474 
Introductory Nuclear Engineering 
2 
Elective 
PHY 252 
PHY 482 
Physics of the Solid Earth 
2 
Elective 
PHY 281 
A minimum of four (4) credit units elective courses is (are) required 
GRAND TOTAL = 19 + 18 = 37
DESCRIPTION OF COURSES
100LEVEL
PHY 111 General Mechanics (2 Credit Units)
Units and Dimensions; Dimensional check for correctness of equations and for deriving simple relations; Addition and Subtraction of vectors; Projectiles; Newton’s Laws; Conservation Laws; Elastic collisions; Work, energy and power; Circular motion, Simple harmonic motion; Motion of rigid bodies; Statics; Gravitation and Gravitational potential; Circular orbit and escape velocity.
PHY 122 Electricity, Magnetism & Modern physics (2 Credit Units)
Electric force; Field and Potentials; Electric flux and Gauss’s Theorem; capacitances; Current electricity; Magnetic force; Magnetic effects of current; Magnetic materials; Electromagnetic induction; Alternating currents; Planck’s constant and quanta of light energy; photoelectric effect; Radioactivity; Nuclear composition; Binding energy; Nuclear fission and fusion; Thermionic emission; Rectification by diodes; Transistors.
PHY 124 Geometric Wave Optics (1 Credit Unit)
Reflection; Refractive index; Snell’s Law; Measurement of refractive index; Air cell; Refraction through prism; Minimum deviation; Lens formula; Lenses in contact; Newton’s formula; Spherical and Chromatic aberrations; Power of lenses; Dispersive powers; Classification of Spectra; Optical instruments; Interference phenomena; Newton’s rings; Polarization; Malu’s Law; Polaroids.
PHY 131 Heat & Properties of Matter (2 Credit Units)
Structure of solids, liquids and gases; Kinetic theory of gases; Elasticity; Surface tension; Solid friction; Fluid in motion; Bernoulli’s Law; Aerofoil; Thermodynamics; Thermal expansion; Heat transfer; Electromagnetic radiation; Prevost’s theory of heat exchange; Thermal radiation detectors; optical pyrometer.
PHY 161/162 General Physics Practical I& II (1 Credit unit each)
In this introductory course emphasis is laid on quantitative measurements, treatment of measurement errors and graphical analysis. A variety of experimental techniques is utilized for simple experiments in mechanics, heat, light and electricity which reflect the Physical relevance of the following courses: PHY 111, PHY 131, PHY 122 and PHY 124 outlined above.
200LEVEL
PHY 202 Mathematical & Computational Physics (3 Credit Units)
Series solution of second order differential equations; Special function of Mathematical Physics; The beta and gamma function; Hypergeometric functions; Legendre and Bessel functions; Dirac delta function; Orthogonal polynomials; Fourier series and transforms; Laplace equation and transforms; Solution to heat and wave equations; Other examples from physical phenomena; Numerical differentiation and integration; Numerical solution of some differential equations in Physics; Curve fitting and interpolation.
Prerequisite: MTH 112
PHY 211 MECHANICS (3 Credit units)
Vector algebra; Triple product; Moment of a vector; Differentiation and integration of vectors; Inertial frame of reference; Galilean transformation; Field of force; Linearity and superposition principle; kinematics; Work and Energy; Rotational motion and inertia; precession.
Prerequisite: PHY 111
PHY 212 Vectors & Tensors (2 Credit Units)
Introduction; Representation of vectors; Addition, subtraction and multiplication of vectors by a scalar; Simple application of vectors to mechanics; Differentiation of vectors; Level surface; Curvilinear coordinates; Interpretation of vectors; Line, surface and volume integrals; Tensors and explanatory notes on dyads and dyadics; Summation convention and Kronecker delta symbols; Rules governing tensor analysis; The fundamental tensors and associated tensors; Metric tensors; Riemann spaces; Tensors forms of operators; Monopoles; Dipoles; Quadrupoles; Multipoles and tensors; Application of tensors to Maxwell Electromagnetic field equations and special theory of relativity.
Prerequisite: PHY 111
PHY 222 Electromagnetism (3 Credit Units)
Electrostatic charges and fields; Gauss’s law; Charge distribution; Electric potential; Electric field intensity; Dielectrics; Electric polarization; Bound charge densities; Electric displacement; Susceptibility; Relative permittivity; Charge transport and current density; Electromotive force; Kirchhoff’s law; Thevenin’s theorem; magnetic effects of current, Resonance; Complex impedance; Force oscillations; Maxwell’s equation; Poynting vectors; Radiation pressure.
Prerequisite: PHY 122
PHY 231 Properties of Matter (2 Credit Units)
Interatomic potential; equilibrium position; van der Waals equation and ionic forces; Nonideal gases; Real gases; Isotherms and critical point; Transport properties; Mean free path; Self diffusion and thermal conduction; Young’s modulus for cubic structure; Equipartition; Specific heat of metals; Fourier heat equation; liquids; Lindermann theory of melting point; Surface energy and triple point of liquids.
Prerequisite: PHY 131
PHY 252 Modern Physics (2 Credit Units)
Atoms and elementary particles; Measurement of e/m ratio; The cyclotron; Isotopes and mass spectroscopy; Wien’s and RaleighJeans laws; Rutherford and Bohr’s models of atoms; Hydrogen spectra; Ritz combination principles; Gravitational Radiation; black hole; Xray production; de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle.
Prerequisite: PHY 122
PHY 261/262 Physics Laboratory I & II (2 Credit Units each)
The laboratory course exposes students to scientific methods and data analysis i.e., how to test theories and draw valid conclusions from experimental evidence and how to write reports on scientific experiments. The laboratory course also illustrates various important physical phenomena by showcasing a group of experiments drawn from the following diverse areas of Physics: Mechanics, Electromagnetism, Optics, Electronics, and Modern Physics.
Prerequisite: PHY 161/PHY 162
PHY 281 Introductory Geophysics (2 Credit Units)
Geophysics as a discipline; generation and propagation of elastic waves; Seismic, Gravity, Magnetic and Electrical methods; Methods of examining the Earth structure; Mechanism and Seismic studies of earthquakes; Heat flow; Concept of plate tectonics and Continental drift.
Prerequisite: NIL
300LEVEL
PHY 300 SIWES (6 Credit Units)
The scheme exposes students to industrial work experience at the 2^{nd} half of their 300 level of 4 years degree programs. And as such all 300 level students pursuing B Sc. (Hons.) Physics program at Federal University Lokoja, are eligible for this exercise and such exercise is to be taken as a single tier, six (6) months Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES). A detailed technical report on the industrial work experience is presented by the students at the end of the scheme and vivavoce examination is to be conducted.
Prerequisite: Minimum of 60 Total Credit Units Earned
PHY 309 Energy & Environment (2 Credit Units)
Understanding of environment; Concept of Energy and power; Principles of demand and outlook; Transformation of energy and its costs; Energy from fossil fuels and HydrosourcesCapacity, Storage, Reserves, Efficiency and Environmental effects; Nuclear fission, fusion and reactors; Alternative sources of energySolar, geothermal, tidal, wind energy etc. Promises and Problems, Need for an energy (National and Global) policy and management.
Prerequisite: NIL
PHY 311 Quantum Physics (2 Credit Units)
Evidence for the failure of Classical Physics; The Schrodinger equation; Solution of Schrodinger equation; Schrodinger equation in spherical coordinates; Approximate solution of the Schrodinger equation.
Prerequisite: PHY 252
PHY 321 Vibrations & Waves (2 Credit Units)
Review of Onedimensional oscillator; Forced oscillations; Coupled oscillations; Travelling waves; waves in two and three dimensions; Polarization; Interference; diffraction.
Prerequisite: PHY 211
PHY 323 Electronics (2 Credit Units)
Principles of semiconductor; pn junction; Network theory; Common Emitter amplifier; Principles of feedback; Amplifier circuits; Operational amplifiers.
Prerequisite: PHY 222
PHY 331 Thermodynamics (2 Credit Units)
Thermodynamic systems; First Law of Thermodynamics; Second Law of Thermodynamics; Kinetic Theory; Third Law of Thermodynamics.
Prerequisite: PHY 231
PHY 333 Heat & Momentum Transfer (2 Credit Units)
Fluid flow; Linear and turbulent flow in forced and free convection; Fully developed flows and boundary layer development; Heat transfer; Conduction; Condensation; Boiling; Heat exchanger design; Heat transfer in Nuclear reactors; Radiative heat transfer.
Prerequisite: PHY 211
PHY 343 Introductory Solid State Physics (2 Credit Units)
Crystal structure; Geometry of crystalline state; Miller indices; Scattering of Xrays; Bragg’s Law; Experimental collection of diffraction data; Crystal binding; Elastic properties; Lattice vibrations; Thermal properties.
Prerequisite: PHY 231
PHY 361 Advanced Physics Laboratory (2 Credit Units)
In the advanced Physics laboratory course, students are further exposed to Advanced Statistics and data handling; Advanced experiments in Optics, Electricity; Magnetism; Atomic, Nuclear and Solid state Physics; Experiments in Electronics, Design of standard electronic circuits and Simple circuit analysis using Electronic Workbench software.
Prerequisite: PHY 261/ PHY 262
400LEVEL
PHY 400 Research Project (6 Credit Units)
The course offers students the opportunity to do a bit of research in contemporary Physics under the supervision of an academic staff. A detailed report on the research is presented by the student, when completed vivavoce examination is to be conducted.
Prerequisite: Minimum of 81 Total Credit Units Earned
PHY 401 STUDENTS SEMINAR & LIBRARY SEARCH (1 Credit Unit)
On a variety of given topics based on the prescribed content and related disciplines, students are expected to prepare a report and present a seminar talk. The main emphasis is to train the students for report writing, documentation, library search, study of journals and review of articles. When completed seminar talk is given.
Prerequisite: NIL
PHY 411 Quantum Mechanics (3 Credit Units)
The General Structure of Quantum Mechanics; Operator methods in Quantum Mechanics; Angular Momentum; The Hydrogen atom; Nparticle systems; Multielectron atoms; Approximate Methods; Scattering theory; Application of partial wave analysis; Absorption.
Prerequisite: PHY 311
PHY 412 Hamiltonian Mechanics (2 Credit Units)
Variational principles and Lagrange’s equations; Hamilton’s principle, calculus of variation; Conservation theorems and symmetry properties; Legendre transformation and Hamilton’s equation of motion; Canonical transformation; Equation of motion in Poisson bracket notation; Liouville’s Theorem; HamiltonJacobi theory; Separation of variables in HamiltonJacobi equation; Actionangle variables; Application in geometric optics and wave mechanics.
Prerequisite: PHY 211
PHY 413 Introductory Astrophysics (2 Credit Units)
Stellar spectra; Temperature effect; Spectral Types; The Hertz sprungRussell diagram; Stellar structure; Radioactive transfer; Thermonuclear reaction; Helium burning and advance burning stages; Stellar evolution; Neutrons; stars; Black holes; Cosmology and Gravitation; The Hubble constant and evolution of density and pressure in the Universe.
Prerequisite: PHY 252
PHY 414 Analytical Mechanics (3 Credit Units)
Lagrange’s equation of motion, Twobody central force problem, Kinematics of rigid bodies, Elastic scattering, Axis transformation.
Prerequisite: PHY 211
PHY 418 Electromagnetic Fields & Waves (2 Credit Units)
Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic potentials; The wave equation; Propagation of plane waves; Reflection and refraction; Transmission lines; wave guides; resonant cavities; radiation; geometrical optics; interference of waves; Diffraction.
Prerequisite: PHY 222
PHY 421 Electromagnetic Theory (3 Credit Units)
Review of vector calculus; Review of electrostatic fields and Dielectrics; Solution of potential problems; Special theory of relativity; Electromagnetic fields of moving charges; Magnetic fields of steady currents; Electromagnetic induction; Magnetic properties of matter; Maxwell’s equation; Elongation of magnetic waves through interface of two media.
Prerequisite: PHY 222
PHY 422 Advanced Electronics (2 Credit Units)
Field Effect Transistor (FET) circuits; Principle of Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Transistor (MOST) operation; Optoelectronics devices; Alphanumeric displays; Introduction to Boolean logics; DeMorgan’s theorem; Digital components; TransistorTransistor Logic (TTL) family of digital integrated circuits; Bipolar memory digital systems; Linear integrated circuit techniques; Voltage hold; Principles of the phase locked loop and applications.
Prerequisite: PHY 323
PHY 423 Acoustics (2 Credit Units)
Objective and Subjective assessment of sound levels; Radiation of sound; Applications of ultrasonic waves; Microphones; Absorption of sound; Acoustics and buildings; Sound level measurement.
Prerequisite: PHY 321
PHY 424 Microwave & Radiation (2 Credit Units)
Field due to elementary radiating dipole; Parabolic and horn reflectors; Waveguides; Field distributions in rectangular and circular waveguides; Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes; Phase and group velocities; Very High Frequency (VHF), Ultra High Frequency (UHF) and microwave oscillators; Masers and Lasers; Optical cavity; Population inversion; Gas and Solid state lasers; Use in satellite communication.
Prerequisite: PHY 222
PHY 425 Modern Optics (2 Credit Units)
Polarization; Interference and Diffraction; Refraction at plane and spherical surfaces; Lens system; Stops; Aberration; Optical instruments; Diffraction theory; Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction.
Prerequisite: PHY 124
PHY 428 Semiconductor Physics (2 Credit Units)
Semiconductors; Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors; Tunneling; Unijunction; Junction Field Effect transistor; Surface Physics; Optoelectronic devices.
Prerequisite: PHY 323
PHY 432 Introduction to Statistical Physics (2 Credit Units)
Macroscopic and Microscopic states, Quantum Statistics, Application of statistics to gases, Application of statistics to solids, Application of quantum statistics to other systems.
Prerequisite: PHY 331
PHY 442 Solid State Physics (3 Credit Units)
Free electron theory: Fermi gas in 3 dimension, Heat capacity of electron gas, Electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Thermal conductivity of metals; Energy band: Nearly free electron model, Energy gap, Bloch functions, Wave equation of electron in a periodic potential, Metals, Insulators, semiconductors, Construction and experimental measurement of Fermi surfaces; Semiconductors: Mobile electrons in covalent crystals, Donor and acceptor impurities, Thermal excitation of carriers, conductivity, Hall effect, Cyclotron resonance; Superconductivity: Meissner effect, London equation, BCS theory, Josephson effects; Dielectric properties: Ferroelectricity, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism and Antiferromagnetism.
Prerequisite: PHY 343
PHY 446 Materials Science (2 Credit Units)
Materials characteristics; Chemical bonding; Atomic order and disorder in solids; Electron transport; Point and line imperfections; Single and Multiphase materials; Microstructure and properties of ceramics; Mechanical, Electrical, Optical and Magnetic properties of materials; Selection of materials and Modern materials.
Prerequisite: PHY 343/ PHY 331
PHY 451 Introductory Nuclear Physics (2 Credit Units)
Introduction, Nomenclature and Review of Basic Nuclear Properties; Radioactive decays; Introduction to Nuclear Reactions; Nuclear forces and brief review of nuclear models; Experimental Methods in Nuclear Physics; Radiation sources; Nuclear Spectroscopy; Nuclear accelerators; Nuclear reactors; Review of elementary particles; Introduction to Neutron Physics.
Prerequisite: PHY 252
PHY 452 Advanced Nuclear Physics (2 Credit Units)
Strong, Weak and Electromagnetic interactions; Low energy neutron and proton scattering; Electric quadrupole, moment of deuteron; Capture of slow neutron by hydrogen; Nuclear structure and models of nucleus; Unified models; Decay processes; Gamma emission; Integral conversion; Nuclear isomerism.
Prerequisite: PHY 252
PHY 453 Plasma Physics (2 Credit Units)
Motion of charged particles in an Electromagnetic field; Langevin’s equation; Electron conductivity and mobility; Wave propagation parallel and perpendicular to magnetic field; Derivation of continuum equation; Diffusion; Longitudinal waves in a fully ionized gas; Linearized MagnetoHydrodynamic equations; Distribution function and Boltzmann equation; Landau damping; The Ntheorem; Lowest order transport equation for a gas mixture; Calculation of transport coefficients; The FokkerPlanck equation; Radiation from Plasma; Plasma devicesfusion reactor.
Prerequisite: PHY 222
PHY 455 Atomic & Molecular Spectroscopy (2 Credit Units)
The Hydrogen Atom; Atomic spectra; Relativistic effect and spin; Many electron atoms; Coupling schemes and vector model; Hyperfine structure; Diatomic molecule; Frank Condon Principle; Infrared spectroscopy; Microwave methods; Resonance phenomena: ESR, NMR, NQR.
Prerequisite: PHY 252
PHY 457 Radiation Biophysics (2 Credit Units)
Radiation protection standards, Basic concepts and Units, Dosimetry, Internal and External irradiation; Natural and artificial activity in the environment; Biological consequences of nuclear radiation; Protection measures against internal and external irradiation; Handling of radioactive materials; Radioisotope laboratories.
Prerequisite: PHY 252
PHY 458 Reactor Physics (2 Credit Units)
Nuclear fission; Fissionable materials; Fission products and their cross section; Neutron transport; Diffusion Theory applied to reactors; Dynamic behaviour of reactors.
Prerequisite: PHY 252
PHY 459 Nuclear Instrumentation (2 Credit Units)
Introduction; Radiation types and sources; Detectors: Scintillation counters and Solid state Detectors; Review of nuclear electronics unit; Radiation spectra interpretation; Coincidence anticoincidence methods; Dosimetry and monitoring equipment.
Prerequisite: PHY 252
PHY
List of Academic staff in Department of Physics
Contact Address
For Further information, contact:
Department of Physics
Federal University Lokoja
PMB 1154
Lokoja, Kogi State
Nigeria.
Email: physic@fulokoja.edu.ng
Contact number: +2348074777024